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Palmaris longus muscle contribution to maximum torque and steadiness in highly skilled grip and non-grip sport populations

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos Salonikidis, Aikaterini Mantziou, Konstantinos Papageorgiou, Fotini Arabatzi
Salonikidis, K., Mantziou, A., Papageorgiou, K., Arabatzi, F. (2021). Palmaris longus muscle contribution to maximum torque and steadiness in highly skilled grip and non-grip sport populations Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol.1, pp. 67-79. DOI: 10.37393/JASS.2021.01.6
Publication year: 2021

Background: The anatomy, origin, function, and appearance of the Palmaris Longus Muscle (PLM) in different populations are well studied. However, little is known about its contribution to wrist fl exion movements in sports. This study investigates whether the existence or absence of the PLM affects maximal torque output or torque consistency of submaximal wrist fl exion moment.
Methods: One hundred ninety-seven well-trained sports students were clinically examined to ascertain the presence of the PLM. Forty of them from different sport disciplines were assigned to two groups (athletes in handgrip sports: HG, athletes in non-handgrip sports: NHG). Their 80 upper limbs were divided based on the PLM-presence/absence and hand-dominance/non-dominance. Maximal Isometric Torque (MIT) at 150º, 180º, and 210º wrist angle, and torque steadiness at 150º and 180º, at 25%, 50%, and 75% of MIT were measured on a Humac Norm dynamometer.
Results: In all MIT tests, HGs signifi cantly surpassed NHGs, independently of the dominant or non-dominant side in presence of the PLM (p <.05). Steadiness was signifi cantly higher in HGs than in NHGs in dominant hands having the PLM, at 25% and 75% of MIT at both angles (p <.05).
Conclusions: It is concluded that the existence of the PLM provides an advantage in sustained handgrip sports (throwers, racquet sports, basketball, handball players), contributing positively to decreased torque variability and
higher maximal torque independently of muscular length. Important implications for sports performance and injury prevention have also resulted.

Force Steadiness during Submaximal Isometric Plantar and Dorsiflexion in Resistance Training: Experienced vs Non-experienced Individuals

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou, Salonikidis Konstantinos, Meliadis Anastasios, Arabatzi Fotini
Salonikidis, K. et al. (2021) ‘Force Steadiness during Submaximal Isometric Plantar and Dorsiflexion in Resistance Training: Experienced vs Non-experienced Individuals’, Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 34(2), pp. 5–13. doi: 10.18276/CEJ.2021.2-01.
Publication year: 2021

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in force steadiness during submaximal plantar flexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) of the dominant leg between individuals experienced and not experienced in resistance training. Forty males aged 18-32 were divided in two groups based on their experience in resistance training (experienced – not experienced). Evaluation of maximal voluntary isometric force was carried out on a Humac-Norm isokinetic dynamometer. The measurement of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured in 3 isometric attempts. Then, the stability measurement of 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% of the MVC was assessed. The duration of the isometric contraction was 10 seconds but only 6 seconds were analyzed. T-test for independent samples and ANOVA was applied for the statistical analysis. The results showed that the individuals with more experience in resistance training presented a significantly higher MVC and force steadiness of the plantar and dorsiflexors muscles, compared with the individuals with less experience (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the years of practice with resistance training appear to have a beneficial effect on force steadiness.

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Verification in theory and in the sciences

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)Selected publications
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou, Demetrios E. Lekkas
Papageorgiou, K. and Lekkas, D. (2020), Epistēmēs Metron Logos, (3), pp. 25–48. doi: 10.12681/eml.22106.
Publication year: 2020

In this work, we undertake the task of laying out some basic considerations towards straightening out the foundations of an abstract logical system. We venture to explain what theory is as well as what is not theory, to discriminate between the roles of truth in theory and in reality, as well as to open the road towards clarifying the relationship between theory and the real world. Etymological, cultural and conceptual analyses of truth are brought forth in order to reveal problems in modern approaches and to set the stage for more consistent solutions. One such problem addressed here is related to negation per se, to its asymmetry towards affirmative statements and to the essential ramifications of this duality with respect to the common perceptual and linguistic aspects of words indicating concepts akin to truth in various languages and to attitudes reflected and perpetuated in them and to their consequent use in attempted informal or formal logic and its understanding. Finally, a case study invoking the causes or “causes” of gravity both clarifies and reinforces the points made in this paper.

Towards the model of contributory expert generalists

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)Selected publications
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou. (in press). Towards the model of contributory expert generalists. Arhe.
Publication year: 2020

The study of expertise has focused on the concept of specialization and specialists, both from a sociological and a biological perspective. It has been taken for granted that expertise concerns only specialization; even individuals characterized as “polymaths” or homo universalis are considered to be expert specialists in many fields. Can expert specialists in many fields exist today? This question is deceitful or irrelevant since it cannot accommodate the concept of individuals who are neither specialists nor “poly-specialists” but have knowledge of a different level: not analytic, but rather, synthetic and abstract. Here, a new type of expert is proposed, contributory expert generalist. Their necessity stems from the methodology of epistēmē proper. Their characteristics will be identified and discussed, some empirical examples will be given and their expert status is going to be discussed using various theoretical approaches on expertise, namely SEA, SEE and STS (Science of Exceptional Achievement, Study of Expertise and Experience, Science Technology and Society).

The Tennis SensoriMotor Synchronisation Paradigm

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. G. (2020) ‘The Tennis SensoriMotor Synchronisation Paradigm’, European Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 8(2), pp. 57–67. doi: 10.13187/ejpe.2020.1.57.
Publication year: 2020

The author proposes a new Paradigm for both research and practice regarding tennis. Sensorimotor Synchronisation (SMS) is the scientific field studying how people may synchronise their actions to an external stimulus (a pacer). SMS provides the most relevant set of concepts to tennis because synchronisation with both the ball and the opponent is the most decisive factor for performance: ball directionality, early preparation and economy of movement are all affected by good synchronisation skills but not so much by reaction time. In martial arts schools, synchronisation is the golden chalice of superior performance, which leaves many questions about the choices that have been made in tennis. Here, after a mini-review of SMS-related concepts and terms, an SMS application to tennis will be proposed and some drills will be described for the first time. Not all questions will or can be answered here, however a new Research Programme should be emerging: as is the case in all Programmes and Paradigms, they cannot be directly tested but they offer the background for specific experiments to follow. Tennis SMS is also compatible with bioinformatics since expert systems may be developed to both monitor and improve synchronicity.

Online Coach Development Components: the Tennis Distal Method Coach Development

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. G. (2020) ‘Online Coach Development Components: the Tennis Distal Method Coach Development’, Pedagogy, 92(7s), pp. 17–28.
Publication year: 2020

Taking for granted the new standards in sports in regard to the recent, still-evolving pandemic, Coach Development is seen through a new prism, based on the experience gained from an online tennis Coach Development course. At First, the role of the coach is discussed as an expert generalist and then the ideal components of Coach Development systems are presented. Finally, it is discussed whether these findings may be applied to online learning.

Online coach development and certification programs in sports: are they possible?

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. G. (2020). Online coach development and certification programs in sports: are they possible? Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 29(4).
Publication year: 2020

Anticipating the inevitable shift of coach education and Coach Certification Programs (CCP) to distance-learning platforms in the imminent future, I have attempted to identify obstacles that we are likely to face. After explaining the rationale and the potential benefits of such courses, I have identified
technique as the most difficult component to both teach and evaluate. A specific viewpoint regarding technique is briefly discussed and several related guidelines are provided to assist in both teaching (coach education) and evaluating technique (CCP) within the context of distance education.

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On Sports Biomechanics Methodology

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)Sports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. G. (2020), Epistēmēs Metron Logos, (4), pp. 50-61. doi: 10.12681/eml.24289.
Publication year: 2020

Sports biomechanics is one of the most fascinating and formalised disciplines in sports science. While it uses a host of methods, on closer look, it lacks a thorough epistemological / methodological foundation besides what it implicitly borrows from the sciences it uses, such as mathematics and physics. Here, I shall attempt to portray what such a basic epistemological understanding would include and also try to address issues directly related to such an approach. I shall start by describing the most general context in which sports biomechanics exist and then, I will attempt to provide a structural context to bridge the gap between sports biomechanics and practice. Concluding with some ideas about the future of biomechanics.

Exploiting the Cognitive-Physical-Emotional interconnection: Motowords and the Distal Method

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. G. (2020), Journal of Applied Sports Sciences., issue 1 (2020)
Publication year: 2020

Background: communication between the trainer and the athlete has been studied in terms of feedback, but not in terms of codifying information for instruction; here implications for cognition and cognitive skills is also discussed.

Purpose: to present a new tool, motowords, a verbal codification tool between the athlete and the trainer that also provides many side benefits: it helps adjust the Degrees of Freedom of a drill, it employs cognitive functions, it fosters active participation of the athlete and it bridges the gap between serial and random practice. Moreover, we intend to theorize on how the positive effects of motowords are multiplied when combined with drill-synthesis and drill-structure, as well as with differentiated (self)training, concepts that aim at increasing the ecological validity of training sessions.

Method: the theoretical background supporting the effectiveness of these tools is discussed.

Leads: to a broader vision about the important role of cognitive and emotional skills within a holistic context aiming at developing “literate” individuals rather than just motor experts, which, both the former and the latter, are at the very core of the Distal Method for expertise attainment.

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The predicate fabric of abstraction: the hard test of logical inversion

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou, Demetrios E. Lekkas
Papageorgiou, K. G. and Lekkas, D. E. (2019), Epistēmēs Metron Logos, (2), pp. 69–88. doi: 10.12681/eml.20573.
Publication year: 2019

The paper starts with an ultra-compact deposition on the two ubiquitous complementary dual pairwise organized methodological procedures of episteme, i.e. the analytic method (analysis – synthesis)& the abstract process (abstraction – structure). Next, the authors examine some ground rules and concepts pervading causality and inference and their junctions, attempting to discriminate between information flow in empiricism and theoretical causality of proof; only then is a connection between them attempted and investigated. In the authors’ effort to establish a consistent theoretical outlook, if not approach, the technique of logical inversions is also used as a partial yet powerful guide elucidating how successful their attempts were. Apart from clarifying some opaque concepts in logic, in set theory and in the staple empiricism of science, this paper also sets the stage for questioning whether some grave flaws could be located in traditional, save ill-founded, notions in hardcore science, on occasion of the par excellence typical example of fundamental and never challenged approaches in physics. The fact that something has been accepted as holding does not at all mean that cracks may not be located in its epistemological makeup at some posterior time. And it is the text’s task here to ask some painful questions and try to set some realistic boundaries to things by aptly utilizing available irresistible standard «tricks» from logic and from the classical scientific method and from reverting to fruitful techniques and to telling examples, pushing hard for convincing answers.

JPES

The distal method: From psychomotor education to motor expertise

Journal articleSelected publicationsSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. G. (2019), Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(1). doi: 10.7752/jpes.2019.01092.
Publication year: 2019

A unifying theoretical model for motor expertise attainment is presented. Based on an extensive theoretical background several practical applications are discussed examples are given and guidelines are proposed. The main tenets of this approach called “The Distal Method” is that motor expertise development should be based on i. processes that impact the future and not (necessarily) the present ii. motor skills and cognitive skills are coupled iii. emotions are the substrate for any development to take place. The basic tools of such an approach will be presented here which could act both as a guide and a model – or even a paradigm – for successfully developing and refining psychomotor skills from early on.

The Analytic Model of Consent and the Square of Opposition

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. (2019), Conatus, 4(1), pp. 79–98. doi: 10.12681/cjp.18611.
Publication year: 2019

Modelling consent is a process prior to any discussion about it, be it theoretical or practical. Here, after examining consent, I shall attempt to present a “logical generator” that produces all different cases of consent (and/or of non-consent), so that afterwards we may articulate a two-dimensional model which will enable us to coherently demonstrate all possible types of consent. The resulting model will be combined with Aristotle’s square of opposition, offering us even greater insight.  I shall claim that full(y) informed consent is an archetype, not realized in most cases; it is just one case out of hundreds more. I shall conclude with an educational model for consent, the principle of specificity, arguing that if we wish to both understanding consent and become more adept in exercising it, we need a targeted educational system – not just “better education” in general.

Theatre pedagogy and the Distal Method in psycho-social development (Greek)

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou, Simos Papadopoulos
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou and Simos Papadopoulos (2018), Applied Pedagogy, (9), pp. 1–19.
Publication year: 2018

The triple identity of the empowering action coordinator (a poor translation usually used is “animator”) includes the roles of the scientist, of the artist but also of the healer – the mediator to higher consciousness levels. The paper goes on to locate theatre pedagogy within the paradigm of the Distal Method; actually quite a widespread one, since theatre pedagogy may be used for many purposes, either in isolation or in combination: as a psychotherapeutic tool, as a learning tool, as a social and emotional developmental tool, as the context of training (style), or as just fun.

Physiological Changes after One Month of Exclusive Supplement Consumption and Exercise: A Case Study

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou, Konstantinos G. Salonikidis
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou and Konstantinos G. Salonikidis (2018), Journal of Sports Science, 6(3), pp. 170–177. doi: 10.17265/2332-7839/2018.03.006.
Publication year: 2018
ABSTRACT
An extreme protocol including one month of intense exercise (HIIT: High Intensity Interval Training) and exclusive supplement consumption, i.e. no food, was undertaken by one participant, in order to understand the effects of one month of exercise without eating any food. The purpose was to acquire some initial data for future studies so that better exercise programs may be designed for both time-restricting athletic programs, and individuals who wish to combine fast fat-reduction and the improvement of their physical form. There was a parallel methodological goal to examine changes synthetically and not analytically, that is, to compensate for a gap in literature in regard to the absence of synthetic models. Changes in the participant (male, 34 y.o.,72 kg, BMI: 22.9) included a 21.20% relative reduction in body fat (3.9% in absolute values), a 2.6% reduction in body weight coupled with a 1.8% increase in fat-less mass, a 10% increase in maximum leg extension and a 6% increase in maximum chest press. Blood creatinine (+56%) and blood urea (+35%), as well as SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) (+45%), SGPT (Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase) (+75%) and Lymphocytes (+45%) were markedly increased. HIIT and exclusive supplement consumption, intermittent fasting and hypocaloric diet for one month drastically affected the individual in this case study by drastically improving his physical form, at the cost of worsening important biochemical markers.
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On the Methodology of the Analytic Method: Historical Account, Epistemological Suggestions, Stages

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou, Demetrios E. Lekkas
Papageorgiou, K. and Lekkas, D. E. (2018), Epistēmēs Metron Logos, (1), p. 70. doi: 10.12681/eml.19244.
Publication year: 2018

In this paper we attempt a good unearthing, sound tackling and effective pointing out of the critical key features permeating one of the two cornerstones supporting the total coordination and interplay underlying the complex epistemonic and scientific method: and that would be the constituent methodology concisely known under the cover name “analytic method”. In this attempt, however, it becomes evident very soon that the direct similarities, reciprocities and complementarities to the other cornerstone, concisely known as “abstractive method”, must also be laid out concurrently; the two share the same needs and behaviours, while they must also be mutually disambiguated and framed in inner consistencies and mutual contrast, to assert proper theoretical coverage, fruitful application and mutual impermeability overall. Thus, both of them end up being discussed in parallel. To that end, simple and intuitively appealing proposals are sought, expressed and projected, regarding their key attributes, range and boundaries, both generally and especially in between them; their defining points and most essential requirements are sought out and expressed, their functional standards are suggested and the stages of its application are prescribed, according to a shadowy yet rigorous gradual breakup and assembling procedure derived from elementary combinatorics and set theory. All this gets illustrated in the schematic stages to be pursued in two relevant enlightening analytic examples, chosen so as to also partake of a crucial share of an abstractive aspect. Two relevant issues are touched upon along the way in the vein of the present tone of quest, namely those concerning basic prerequisites of logic employed and the confusion and effective double-talk underlying the term “theory” (vs. “theories”) and the consequent term-induced ambiguity in the concepts. On the subject, analysis is the breakup of an “entity” into its “components” and synthesis is its retroactive operation, or “return”, from “components” to the “entity”. Similarly, “abstraction” is the course from an entity to a nesting of successive general categories, and “structure” is the other way around from more general categories towards smaller contained assemblages of entities, each uniformly exhibiting “partial manifestations” of the said categorical feature. The semantic context and its set-theoretical implications are of paramount importance here. What is definitively taken as a “unity”, in each case, is a matter of choice, and of mutual and binding agreement among the parties conducting the study and its discussion. Beyond that, figuratively speaking, the analytic method concerns “anatomical autopsies” digging into such unities constituting elements or members of sets, whereas the abstractive method concerns attributes connecting sets of such “unities” and their nested supersets and subsets. We close by sketching the stage-by-stage application as illustrated in two case-studies: one from Cultural Studies, regarding a model, focusing on the primitive ternary ritual of the performing arts [ΚΛΜ], discussed complete with some key side issues, and accompanied by considerations on the triple of the material arts [ΧΨΩ], and then one from Bioethics regarding all possible partial and combinatorial constituents in consent models.

The Subtle Colourings of (Informed) Consent in Performance Enhancement: Implications for Expertise

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)Sports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou (2017), Philosophy Study, 7(4), pp. 197–203. doi: 10.17265/2159-5313/2017.04.004.
Publication year: 2017

The analytic method, part of the epistemonic method, provides us with a way to cope with perplexed cases, without even referring to the world out there. We are able to predict all possible variations of consent, and go on forming minimum logical quadripoles, 8-poles, 16-poles, etc., before even trying to make any connection to the world. This way, there are two major outcomes: All possible scenarios are predicted, and, because of that, our “logical generator” produces scenarios we couldn’t even think of. Consent is, therefore, neither binary (existence or absence), nor just a continuum from existence to absence, but a cladistic tree stemming from the basic quadripole “existence of consent/not existence of consent/absence of consent/not absence of consent.” The complexity increases rapidly when other terms are included; try: “existence of informed consent” or “existence of unintentional consent.” More levels develop as we examine relevant terms, such as “exposure,” “protection,” or “consumption.” In our case-study, we shall examine how different aspects of consent are expressed regarding the issue of performance enhancement and consider some implications for the notion of expertise within an SEA (Science of Exceptional Achievement) context. Many different terms may describe the most common situations, namely, “uniformed consent,” “unintentional consent,” “non-intentional consent,” “not absence of consent,” and also, “unintentional exposure,” “intentional non-protection,” and so on. In Greek language, the possible variations are even more (there are two kinds of negation in Greek). All the aforementioned terms have different ethical consequences. We shall also examine whether doping is an inherent part of expertise attainment.

Performance Spiral effects on Motor Learning: the case of tennis serve

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou (2016), Hellenic Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 36(2), pp. 197–214.
Publication year: 2016

Performance-learning distinction necessitates the development of novel models to measure
performance meaningfully, i.e. in direct relation to the “invisible” learning. Such models should
have direct practical implications. Performance Spiral (PS) is such a model and incorporates
findings from motor learning &amp; control disciplines (Contextual Interference, practice schedules,
dynamic system theory), Sports Training (speed-assisted / resisted training) and insights (Slow
Practice) from traditional major schools in music and sports. 11 subjects (age M=31, intermediate
level) in two groups, one control (6) and one PS-trained (5) were measured in speed and accuracy
progression of tennis serve, which would denote motor learning. After two months, while the
classically-trained control group did not show any statistically significant change in performance,
the PS-trained group increased their accuracy significantly. PS model is effective in producing
motor learning in tennis serve. These preliminary results are discussed and future directions are
given.

An Analysis of the Kinetic Chain Model In Forehand Drive

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou (2016), Medicine & Science in Tennis, 21(2), pp. 22–26.
Publication year: 2016

This article in JMST lays the foundations of the biomechanical model of the tennis Distal Method, as well as an application in the forehand drive (since applications are always important for such practice-oriented journals). The concepts presented in this article are relevant to the technique of all tennis shots.

Talent as an unintentional agent

Journal articlePhilosophy (Epistemology/Ethics)Sports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Papageorgiou, K. G. (2015), 1(2), pp. 38–54.
Publication year: 2015

Unintentional exposure is a novel concept. No single person has coined the term. It mainly refers to
substances and activities affecting individuals without their consent – be it informed or not. In the
broader field of applied ethics in general, and of bioethics in particular, the scope of application
extends from nutrition (GM, functional food), to pollution (chemical-, air-, light-, noise-, radioactive
contamination etc.), climate change, embryo rights, drug side-effects (especially in regard to
chemotherapy), radiation (e.g. food), Permissible Exposure Limits, education and (bio-)terrorism. In
the discussion about talent and giftedness, there are two main approaches or schools of thought. On
one hand, talent is conceived as an exclusive agent, in that some individuals are born more capable
than others. On the other hand, a different school of thought advocates the modification of body and
mind of all individuals in order for them to achieve similar levels of high performance. In the first
case, individuals are bound to their nature, while in the latter instance they are prisoners of their
environment –two equivalent positions in terms of autonomy and freedom. The latter will be argued to
be the case; as a result, a connection with unintentional exposure will be established.

Deliberate Practice in Tennis

Journal articleSports science
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou
Konstantinos G. Papageorgiou (2014), Journal of Medicine and Science in Tennis, 19(3), pp. 113–119.
Publication year: 2014

Is there a way of practice that is beneficial to tennis? Indeed, there is: Deliberate and well-structured practice. This article attempts to describe the model of Deliberate Practice (DP) and its potential applications to tennis